“When parents learn that their child may be dyslexic, it is natural that they will go through a difficult time accepting it. It will be hard work helping their child cope with their studies, but they must never give up.”

Ms. Tracy Tong is Pathways’ Early Literacy Support teacher. Being also a mother to a son who has special education needs, what she wants to see most is for parents to support and face the challenges together with their child, instead of being frightened and avoiding the “difficulty”.

“If we, as parents, are not committed to helping our child, then how can we ask for help from others?”

Ms. Tong used to be a kindergarten teacher.  She noticed that many parents do not understand dyslexia. When a teacher discovers that a child had apparent learning difficulties and wishes to explain and suggest support methods, often parents are  unwilling to accept the reality, and avoid facing the problem. They simply hope that the teachers at school will help their child overcome such learning difficulties.

In contrast, parents who seek help from Pathways mostly possess a fair amount of knowledge about dyslexia. They understand that children with dyslexia have normal intelligence, they only need a different way of learning. That is why most of these parents accept the suggested intervention methods, and are willing to help their child face the difficulties.

To encourage parents to support their child outside of class, Ms. Tong tries her utmost to maintain close communication with the parents.  Every time after class, she pastes the content of what she taught in the student journal; if the parents come to pick up their child after class, she makes it a point to brief them on their child’s progress.  For those who are unable to pick up after class themselves, she communicates with them every month to understand more about the child, so that she can design customized content for them.

Since Ms. Tong mainly teaches kindergarten students, she is experienced in handling pre-school children with mood problems in class. If a child does not want to participate in the small group activity, she will tell them softly: “It is fine if you don’t want to play now; you can join us when you want to play later.” Usually the child will be aroused by the group interaction, and will gradually overcome the negative mood and join the group activity.

Ms. Tong has taught over 50 students. The one who impressed her the most was a student whose progress in literacy learning was very slow. That student had been at taking class at Pathways for almost two years, and had experienced different methods of literacy learning. Yet he did not seem to be making any progress. But in the third year he was like a changed person all of a sudden, and made great strides in learning. He became even more confident when he entered primary school.

Ms. Tong revealed that her feelings during the time she taught this student was like a roller coaster ride. “I doubted whether I had used the correct method to teach him.  Looking back, I realized that what he needed was time to absorb the knowledge he had been taught. As long as the direction is correct, the reward will eventually come. When I shared this case with my colleagues, they were just as amazed and delighted as I was.”

As our students grow up, they will be able to master and apply the skills they learnt. This is the source of satisfaction for our teachers.

Source: 2018-19 Annual Report

Ms. Tong used group games to make students more engaged in learning.
Ms. Tong used group games to make students more engaged in learning.

Teachers used different picture books and teaching materials for preschool students.
Teachers used different picture books and teaching materials for preschool students.


Ms. Tong has joined Pathways for five years, and she enjoys the company of her colleagues.
Ms. Tong has joined Pathways for five years, and she enjoys the company of her colleagues.


Mr. Panny Chan (also known as Chan Sir) is into his tenth year at Pathways. With a total student service count of over 200, Chan Sir is one of Pathways’ most experienced mathematics teacher.

Back then, following the reform of the local education policy, the administrative workload of full-time day-school teachers became very heavy. Chan Sir, however, wanted to keep his focus on teaching students. So when he came upon the opportunity of working at Pathways’ for its After School Support Programme, he took the offer, and has been teaching students with dyslexia until today.

As classes in Pathways are mostly in small groups or even individual-based, Chan Sir can design individualized teaching plans to suit each student’s pace of learning.  When a new student joins, Chan Sir will start by establishing a mutual friendship. He will observe closely and communicate often with the student during class, so as to understand whether the student’s numeracy difficulty is due simply to a weak memory, or if it is a problem with number sense. Sometimes Chan Sir also pays attention to the emotions of the student, identifying the reason behind the fear or dislike of mathematics, so that the correct intervention method can be applied.

“Students with dyslexia are usually also less confident and lacking in social skills. That is why it is very important to understand their feelings. Once there was a student whose parents consistently urged him to do mathematical exercises. This led to his dislike and refusal to learn mathematics. When I come across students who have poor learning motivation, I try to teach them through games, hoping that they slowly grow to like the subject. Only by increasing their motivation to learn can marked improvements become evident, and this process takes time,” Chan Sir explained.

Among his students, Chan Sir finds most impressive a girl who has been his student for almost seven years. She came to Pathways when she was in Primary 2.  She was disengaged in class, and reluctant to do any math exercises. Chan Sir used different multi-sensory methods to arouse her interest in the subject, which facilitated her understanding of the mathematical concepts. Her grades at school gradually improved; she came second in the whole grade when she graduated from primary school, and remained among the top students in secondary school. Teacher and student are like friends now, and every class is a happy experience.

Through his many encounters with students with dyslexia, Chan Sir discovered that it is very important to identify and support children with the difficulty as early as possible.  “Parents should pay attention to their child’s learning starting from lower primary school, or even before that. Generally speaking, if a child has difficulty counting numbers or skipping over numbers at pre-school stage, parents may want to have screening tests done to identify whether the child is at risk of dyslexia, as this may cause the child to have numeracy difficulty,” he said.

He explained, “The thinking pattern of younger students is not fixed yet, so they are more open to new concepts. This helps to make learning efficiency more apparent than in older students, and effect from the appropriate intervention support will come even sooner!”

Source: 2018-19 Annual Report

Chan Sir showcased teaching materials to parents.
Chan Sir showcased teaching materials to parents.


Build friendship with students and pay attention to their emotions.
Build friendship with students and pay attention to their emotions.


The most important task is to enhance students' learning motivation.
The most important task is to enhance students’ learning motivation.


Chan Sir discussed students' performance with parents on Parents' Day.
Chan Sir discussed students’ performance with parents on Parents’ Day.


語素意識與兒童的讀寫能力息息相關。本地研究發現,兒童對語素的意識愈好,他們的讀寫能力也愈高(Tong, McBride, Lo, & Shu, 2017)。語素意識有助兒童建構及理解新詞彙,掌握語素意識,孩子就能舉一反三,增強擴展口語詞彙量的能力。這次將推介一些遊戲及日常點子,幫助提升孩子的語素意識。




  1. 語素是具有完整意思而又最小的語音單位,以下是語素的一些例子:2. 不同的語素結合,便可構成意思更豐富的新詞彙。以下是一些例子:




  1. 準備幾種不同類別的圖卡(例如水果、交通工具、顏色、包、糖果等),每類4-5張,然後按類別疊起,反轉放在桌上。
  2. 起初只選用2類圖卡(例如水果和糖果),然後分別在2疊圖卡中隨機翻開一張。請孩子說出兩卡結合後的可能名稱。
  3. 家長與孩子輪流翻開圖卡,再根據同一方法拼出不同的詞彙。
  4. 當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以增加圖卡的種類或數量,來建構更多有趣的詞彙(例如黃巴士朱古力、青提子包。


















  1. 選擇一個常見及構詞力較強的單音語素(例:大、水、果、樹、口等)。家長與孩子輪流以所選擇的詞素構出不同的詞彙,能想出最多詞彙的人便勝出(例:「大」可以構成「大人」、「大樹」、「大哥哥」、「好大」、「大笨象」等)。
  2. 構詞只要合理即可,不一定要是書面詞彙。家長可以容許孩子在構詞的過程中發揮自己的創意。



  1. 以問題引導孩子留意事物特質(例:顏色、形狀、用途等),再練習利用不同的語素構詞。




  1. 凸顯每個語素的意思及解釋詞彙構成的規律。




















Tong, X., McBride, C., Lo, J. C. M., & Shu, H. (2017). A three‐year longitudinal study of reading and spelling difficulty in Chinese developmental dyslexia: The matter of morphological awareness. Dyslexia, 23(4), 372-386.


識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享


● 詞彙數量要多
● 詞彙要精準(例:小孩説喜歡吃「包」,但「包」可更準確地描述成「方包」、「魚柳包」或「叉燒包」等)


● 讓孩子從身處的環境中學習相關詞彙,最為有效;例如在過馬路的實況下學習「斑馬線」、「紅綠燈」和「小心」等詞彙。
● 由常見、具體、較概括的簡單名稱入手(例:「包」、「鞋」、「嘢食」、「開心/唔開心」等),再發展較為抽象、少用和複雜的詞彙。
● 可透過指出事物的特性,幫助孩子將簡單的擴展為較精準的詞彙(例:這對「鞋」是用來踢「波」的,所以我們叫它「波鞋」;這對「鞋」的「踭」好「高」,所以我們叫它「高踭鞋」)。
● 當教導孩子一個新詞彙後,家長宜在不同處境或機會中重複使用該詞彙,或透過提問讓孩子說出該詞彙,有助加深孩子對物品及其準確名稱的記憶。


媽媽:「 呢碟係咩嚟呀?」
孩子:「 飯。」
媽媽:「 即係咩飯呢?」

媽媽:「 啲『菠蘿炒飯』好唔好食呀?」


1. 準備一些常用物品的圖卡(例如不同餐具、水果、交通工具等)。
2. 將圖卡反轉隨機放在桌上,然後逐張翻開,孩子要盡快說出圖卡中物品的名稱,能說出正確名稱便可收集該圖卡,收集得越多越好。
3. 起初可只選約 5 張圖卡進行遊戲,並給予時間讓孩子作出反應。當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以加快速度或增加物件的數量,甚至輪流互換角色進行遊戲。

1. 自製一支「神仙棒」,亦可用筷子、鉛筆等長條型物件代替。
2. 善用環境(例如家、公園、超級市場等)中的實物,以「神仙棒」指向其中一樣物件,孩子便要說出該物件的名稱。
3. 若孩子能正確說出物件的名稱,家長應給予讚賞,鼓勵孩子繼續嘗試;亦可互換角色,由孩子拿著「神仙棒」作提問,家長回答。
4. 若孩子說不出物件的名稱或不太準確,家長可說出物件正確的名稱,然後請孩子複述一次。稍後可再次指向該物件,以鞏固記憶。



要提升口語能力,口語詞彙量是一個很重要的條件。下一節,我們將會介紹語素意識 ── 一種能讓孩子無師自通地擴大口語詞彙量的能力,以及提升幼兒語素意識的方法。敬請留意本網頁的更新。



識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

上回提到兒童的口語能力與他們的閱讀發展有著長遠且密切的關係。那麼口語能力是指甚麼呢?本地研究發現,兒童在學前階段的語音處理能力(包括分辨相似的語音–例如押韻的語音「跑、飽、攪」和不同調的語音「包、飽、爆」),以及口語命名的能力(即口語詞彙量),均能高度預測他們日後的閱讀表現(Chan, 2015; Liu et al., 2010; Tong et al., 2009)。簡而言之,就是先要聽得清楚、講得準確。在此推介一些能有效提升孩子對語音的敏銳力及增加口語詞彙的遊戲,輕鬆地為孩子打好口語基本功。



目的:提升孩子對音節的敏感度,幫助孩子掌握廣東話(中文)是每一個音節代表一個字音的概念。例如「杯」有一個音節、「大杯」有兩個音節、「爺爺杯」有 三個音節。


  1. 選用孩子經常接觸的簡單歌謠進行遊戲,例如洗手歌、我是茶壺歌。
  2. 播放或唱出歌謠時,孩子要跟隨歌詞每個字音拍一下手(或做其他動作例如拍枱、跺腳或敲擊等以增加趣味)。
  3. 家長可先用一些常見物品名稱示範玩法,例如漢堡包有三個音節(即三個字音),家長每讀出一個音節時,孩子便要拍一下手:漢[拍]堡[拍]包[拍]。之後才進階拍出歌謠。
  4. 當孩子熟習玩法後,家長與孩子可以輪流互換角色進行遊戲。






  1. 選出2-3個近音字為一組,近音字包括有相同韻母或不同聲調的詞彙。

相同韻母例子:花、蛙、瓜/ 飽、跑、餃/ 拋、包、抄/ 拍、百、髮/ 飄、錶、腰/ 清、星、興/ 酒、手、口/ 搖、橋、苗/ 天、鮮、煙/ 晴、停、鈴

不同聲調例子:收、手、獸/ 遮、蔗、謝/ 蛙、畫、話/ 杯、背/ 膠、攪

  1. 解釋該2-3個字音的意思並配對一個動作,當孩子聽到某個字音時,便要做出相應的動作。例如家長讀「花」,孩子便要做出代表花的那個動作,如此類推。
  2. 起初可只選2個字音來玩,並給予時間讓孩子作出反應。當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以加快速度或增加字音數量。




  1. 先說出一個常用物品名稱,例如巴士、大巴士、電飯煲、多拉A夢,然後提問:如果將巴士個「士」字調去前頭,便變成甚麼?(答案:士巴)。
  2. 家長可按孩子的能力選用2或3或4個語音的詞彙進行不同的置換,期間可借用一些物件例如不同顏色的衣夾或糖果輔助孩子思考置換後的答案。
  3. 當孩子熟習玩法後,家長與孩子可以輪流互換角色進行遊戲。










Chan, C.K. (2015). The Role of Oral Language Development in Learning to Read: Examining the Effect of Dialect Code-switch upon Reading Development in Cantonese-speaking Preschoolers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.


Liu, P. D., McBride-Chang, C., Wong, A. M. Y., Tardif, T., Stokes, S. F., Fletcher, P., & Shu, H. (2010). Early oral language markers of poor reading performance in Hong Kong Chinese children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(4), 322-331.


Tong, X., McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., & Wong, A. M.-Y. (2009). Morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and spelling errors: keys to understanding early Chinese literacy acquisition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13 (5), 426-452.


識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享



從嬰兒牙牙學語,到逐漸學會説單字、詞語、短句、完整句子⋯⋯都是兒童語言發展的重要里程碑。我們常認為讀寫困難只是識字的問題,但原來孩子的語言發展,尤其是口語詞彙,與他們的閱讀發展有著長遠且密切的關係(Storch & Whitehurst, 2002)。

本地研究發現,在小學一年級發現認字有困難的兒童,他們於幼稚園階段的口語詞彙量明顯較平均為少;特別是在中班時,他們的詞彙表現較一般能力的組別落後約一半(Fong & Ho, 2019)。若學習口語詞彙的能力較弱,幼兒進一步發展説句子、理解他人指示、以至閱讀篇章等能力時也會遇上較大的困難。在幼兒未正式學習文字前,家長可觀察一下孩子是否有以下口語表達的問題:

物件 / 顏色名稱混淆:「碗」說成「碟」、「綠色」說成「藍色」
學習時間長: 花較多時間學習,如學會童謠或兒歌後,很快又會忘記
應用詞彙少: 經常用比較概括的字眼來代替,如只懂以「不開心」形容所有負面情緒
次序顛倒: 時常將句子或詞語的次序顛倒,如把「狗仔咬妹妹」說成「妹妹咬狗仔」
不懂舉一反三: 難以將已學的詞語進一步建構成新的詞語,如不會把「杯」擴展成「細杯」後,可自行組出「大杯」、「紅色杯」、「玻璃杯」等新構詞
說話句子短: 常省略主要主語或賓語,較遲才能用完整語句表達意思
複述說話有困難: 未能準確複述別人說過的句子,或就算多次重複指示或描述,但似乎仍未能明白




  • Fong, C. Y. C., & Ho, C. S. H. (2019). Poor oral discourse skills are the key cognitive-linguistic weakness of Chinese poor comprehenders: A three-year longitudinal study. First Language, 39(3), 281-297.
  • Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38(6), 934-947.
  • 香港特殊學習困難研究小組. (2006). 香港學前兒童學習行為量表(家長版).



識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享



幼兒才剛學說話,還未接觸任何文字,怎會有讀寫困難呢?讀寫能力,顧名思義是認讀和默寫的能力;然而,在小孩未正式學習讀寫前,我們原來已可從他們的日常表現中觀察出讀寫困難的端倪。即使是小至三歲的幼兒身上,研究人員已能從口語詞彙等能力上的缺失推測出讀寫障礙的先兆(Puolakanaho et al., 2007)。

讀寫困難兒童的情況是由多種認知能力缺損而形成(Badian, 1997),但絕非由智力、視覺、聽覺或學習動機的問題所致。及早察覺小孩的潛在讀寫困難,家長便能盡早提供適切的幫助,如建立豐富的語言環境、在日常多給予發展語言能力的機會,甚至尋求專業支援。適切的協助不但能減輕幼兒學習及其他情緒或行為上的問題,甚至可有助他們升小學後,應付課業上不用那麼吃力。

本地研究顯示,有早期讀寫困難的幼兒在接受早期讀寫支援後,他們的閱讀能力獲得顯著提升甚至勝過其他未有接受額外支援的幼兒 (Chung,Ho,Chan,Tsang,& Lee,2010)。加拿大學者 Lesaux 和 Siegel(2003)的研究顯示,約百分之二十的學童在幼稚園高班時被診斷為有早期讀寫困難,但經過學前支援後,在小學階段確診為有讀寫障礙的人數便大幅減少至約百分之三。及早識別及介入能讓幼兒盡早獲得專業的支援,在孩子成長上佔據著重要的角色。







  • Badian, N. A. (1997). Dyslexia and the double deficit hypothesis. Annals of Dyslexia, 47(1), 69-87.
  • Chung, K. K. H., Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2010). Effects of kindergarten intervention for the prevention of Chinese children with reading difficulties.
  • Lesaux, N. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). The development of reading in children who speak English as a second language. Developmental Psychology, 39(6), 1005.
  • Puolakanaho, A., Ahonen, T., Aro, M., Eklund, K., Leppänen, P. H., Poikkeus, A. M., … & Lyytinen, H. (2007). Very early phonological and language skills: estimating individual risk of reading disability. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(9), 923-931.


識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享
















當家長察覺孩子經常錯誤認讀英文字母或生字,或倒轉書寫如b變成d,p變成q,往往會向博思會老師請教糾正方法。現在就讓我們用最常見的b d 作例,分享如何加強孩子正確認讀英文字母的方法,主要以形、音、義三方面進行。




對於還未執筆的幼兒,我們可以利用刺激五官 (觸覺、視覺、聽覺、嗅覺及味覺) 的方法以增強孩子對字母的印象,例如: 使用泥膠砌字、沙盆寫字、毛毛鐵線扭字、凹形字卡等,讓幼兒可觸摸,初步加強文字形狀的印象。


音+形 – 認讀


若學生已有基本英文口語詞彙如 boy 及dog,但在認讀或寫字時仍有b d 混淆的情況,可嘗試以字母及圖像來加強記憶。


確認b 的字母可以用boy (男孩) 及 ball (皮球) 來作為記憶提示,這兩個字都是 b音起 ,強化形音關係可將其圖像故事化,如畫一個男孩正在踢球,先寫直線像個男孩 ,再寫半圓像個皮球 (圖一左方)。




確認d 的形狀可以用dog (小狗) 及door (門)這個兩個同是d音字作提示,圖像化為一隻小狗走進門口,先寫左半圓像個小狗,再以直線像一個門口 (圖一右方)。


此外,我們隨身也有視覺提示的工具,這就是孩子的雙手了 (圖二),豎起拇指,將四指互碰對著,便可看見 b d 字形。再具體化一點,是以 bed(床) 形象化, 手指拼起來像一張床,兩邊床板就是 b d。



(圖片來源:My Teaching Station)



當孩子開始執筆書寫字母時,筆順是一個重要的環節。小楷b字母起點要在左邊先寫直線,才再右邊加上半圓;而d字起點應在左邊中間先寫左半圓,再在右邊加上直線 。有些學生把 b d 都從直線開始,容易造成混淆,要不停練習筆順,才能重新鞏固。


練習寫字不一定需要紙及筆,可以試以小遊戲增加孩子的投入感,如在孩子的掌心、背部寫字,甚至隔空寫字,然後要他猜出b 或 d,令學習變得更有趣味。




總結 愉快學習至為重要