“When parents learn that their child may be dyslexic, it is natural that they will go through a difficult time accepting it. It will be hard work helping their child cope with their studies, but they must never give up.”

Ms. Tracy Tong is Pathways’ Early Literacy Support teacher. Being also a mother to a son who has special education needs, what she wants to see most is for parents to support and face the challenges together with their child, instead of being frightened and avoiding the “difficulty”.

“If we, as parents, are not committed to helping our child, then how can we ask for help from others?”

Ms. Tong used to be a kindergarten teacher.  She noticed that many parents do not understand dyslexia. When a teacher discovers that a child had apparent learning difficulties and wishes to explain and suggest support methods, often parents are  unwilling to accept the reality, and avoid facing the problem. They simply hope that the teachers at school will help their child overcome such learning difficulties.

In contrast, parents who seek help from Pathways mostly possess a fair amount of knowledge about dyslexia. They understand that children with dyslexia have normal intelligence, they only need a different way of learning. That is why most of these parents accept the suggested intervention methods, and are willing to help their child face the difficulties.

To encourage parents to support their child outside of class, Ms. Tong tries her utmost to maintain close communication with the parents.  Every time after class, she pastes the content of what she taught in the student journal; if the parents come to pick up their child after class, she makes it a point to brief them on their child’s progress.  For those who are unable to pick up after class themselves, she communicates with them every month to understand more about the child, so that she can design customized content for them.

Since Ms. Tong mainly teaches kindergarten students, she is experienced in handling pre-school children with mood problems in class. If a child does not want to participate in the small group activity, she will tell them softly: “It is fine if you don’t want to play now; you can join us when you want to play later.” Usually the child will be aroused by the group interaction, and will gradually overcome the negative mood and join the group activity.

Ms. Tong has taught over 50 students. The one who impressed her the most was a student whose progress in literacy learning was very slow. That student had been at taking class at Pathways for almost two years, and had experienced different methods of literacy learning. Yet he did not seem to be making any progress. But in the third year he was like a changed person all of a sudden, and made great strides in learning. He became even more confident when he entered primary school.

Ms. Tong revealed that her feelings during the time she taught this student was like a roller coaster ride. “I doubted whether I had used the correct method to teach him.  Looking back, I realized that what he needed was time to absorb the knowledge he had been taught. As long as the direction is correct, the reward will eventually come. When I shared this case with my colleagues, they were just as amazed and delighted as I was.”

As our students grow up, they will be able to master and apply the skills they learnt. This is the source of satisfaction for our teachers.

Source: 2018-19 Annual Report

Ms. Tong used group games to make students more engaged in learning.
Ms. Tong used group games to make students more engaged in learning.

Teachers used different picture books and teaching materials for preschool students.
Teachers used different picture books and teaching materials for preschool students.

 

Ms. Tong has joined Pathways for five years, and she enjoys the company of her colleagues.
Ms. Tong has joined Pathways for five years, and she enjoys the company of her colleagues.

 

Mr. Panny Chan (also known as Chan Sir) is into his tenth year at Pathways. With a total student service count of over 200, Chan Sir is one of Pathways’ most experienced mathematics teacher.

Back then, following the reform of the local education policy, the administrative workload of full-time day-school teachers became very heavy. Chan Sir, however, wanted to keep his focus on teaching students. So when he came upon the opportunity of working at Pathways’ for its After School Support Programme, he took the offer, and has been teaching students with dyslexia until today.

As classes in Pathways are mostly in small groups or even individual-based, Chan Sir can design individualized teaching plans to suit each student’s pace of learning.  When a new student joins, Chan Sir will start by establishing a mutual friendship. He will observe closely and communicate often with the student during class, so as to understand whether the student’s numeracy difficulty is due simply to a weak memory, or if it is a problem with number sense. Sometimes Chan Sir also pays attention to the emotions of the student, identifying the reason behind the fear or dislike of mathematics, so that the correct intervention method can be applied.

“Students with dyslexia are usually also less confident and lacking in social skills. That is why it is very important to understand their feelings. Once there was a student whose parents consistently urged him to do mathematical exercises. This led to his dislike and refusal to learn mathematics. When I come across students who have poor learning motivation, I try to teach them through games, hoping that they slowly grow to like the subject. Only by increasing their motivation to learn can marked improvements become evident, and this process takes time,” Chan Sir explained.

Among his students, Chan Sir finds most impressive a girl who has been his student for almost seven years. She came to Pathways when she was in Primary 2.  She was disengaged in class, and reluctant to do any math exercises. Chan Sir used different multi-sensory methods to arouse her interest in the subject, which facilitated her understanding of the mathematical concepts. Her grades at school gradually improved; she came second in the whole grade when she graduated from primary school, and remained among the top students in secondary school. Teacher and student are like friends now, and every class is a happy experience.

Through his many encounters with students with dyslexia, Chan Sir discovered that it is very important to identify and support children with the difficulty as early as possible.  “Parents should pay attention to their child’s learning starting from lower primary school, or even before that. Generally speaking, if a child has difficulty counting numbers or skipping over numbers at pre-school stage, parents may want to have screening tests done to identify whether the child is at risk of dyslexia, as this may cause the child to have numeracy difficulty,” he said.

He explained, “The thinking pattern of younger students is not fixed yet, so they are more open to new concepts. This helps to make learning efficiency more apparent than in older students, and effect from the appropriate intervention support will come even sooner!”

Source: 2018-19 Annual Report

Chan Sir showcased teaching materials to parents.
Chan Sir showcased teaching materials to parents.

 

Build friendship with students and pay attention to their emotions.
Build friendship with students and pay attention to their emotions.

 

The most important task is to enhance students' learning motivation.
The most important task is to enhance students’ learning motivation.

 

Chan Sir discussed students' performance with parents on Parents' Day.
Chan Sir discussed students’ performance with parents on Parents’ Day.

 

語素意識與兒童的讀寫能力息息相關。本地研究發現,兒童對語素的意識愈好,他們的讀寫能力也愈高(Tong, McBride, Lo, & Shu, 2017)。語素意識有助兒童建構及理解新詞彙,掌握語素意識,孩子就能舉一反三,增強擴展口語詞彙量的能力。這次將推介一些遊戲及日常點子,幫助提升孩子的語素意識。

 

甚麼是語素?

 

  1. 語素是具有完整意思而又最小的語音單位,以下是語素的一些例子:2. 不同的語素結合,便可構成意思更豐富的新詞彙。以下是一些例子:

語素意識遊戲一:糖黐豆變「糖豆」

目的:幫助孩子了解利用語素建構詞彙的規律及方法。

玩法:

  1. 準備幾種不同類別的圖卡(例如水果、交通工具、顏色、包、糖果等),每類4-5張,然後按類別疊起,反轉放在桌上。
  2. 起初只選用2類圖卡(例如水果和糖果),然後分別在2疊圖卡中隨機翻開一張。請孩子說出兩卡結合後的可能名稱。
  3. 家長與孩子輪流翻開圖卡,再根據同一方法拼出不同的詞彙。
  4. 當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以增加圖卡的種類或數量,來建構更多有趣的詞彙(例如黃巴士朱古力、青提子包。

 

日常生活中亦可用類似方法加強孩子的語素意識:

孩子:「媽媽,我想食糖呀!」

家長:「依度有好多種糖喎!嗱,有『花生糖』啦,『牛奶糖』,『咖啡糖』,你要邊種呢?」

孩子:「牛奶糖。」

家長:「嘩,你睇,有唔同動物樣嘅牛奶糖喎,你要獅子牛奶糖、貓貓牛奶糖抑或金魚牛奶糖呀?」

孩子:「我要米奇牛奶糖。」

 

更多例子:

〔食物〕+「醬」:花生醬、朱古力醬、士多啤梨醬

〔交通工具〕+「站」:巴士站、的士站、火車站

〔顏色〕+「帽」:紅帽、藍帽、黃帽

 

 

語素意識遊戲二:詞語大王

目的:讓孩子學習利用不同的語素建構更多豐富的口語詞彙。

玩法:

  1. 選擇一個常見及構詞力較強的單音語素(例:大、水、果、樹、口等)。家長與孩子輪流以所選擇的詞素構出不同的詞彙,能想出最多詞彙的人便勝出(例:「大」可以構成「大人」、「大樹」、「大哥哥」、「好大」、「大笨象」等)。
  2. 構詞只要合理即可,不一定要是書面詞彙。家長可以容許孩子在構詞的過程中發揮自己的創意。

如何提升語素

家長可透過以下兩個方法,在遊戲或日常對答中提升孩子的語素意識。

  1. 以問題引導孩子留意事物特質(例:顏色、形狀、用途等),再練習利用不同的語素構詞。

例:頂帽咩色㗎?紅色嘅帽我地叫「紅帽」。

        個袋用咩做㗎?用布做嘅袋叫「布袋」。

 

  1. 凸顯每個語素的意思及解釋詞彙構成的規律。

例:「聲控」;「聲」代表聲音;「控」代素控制;所以「聲控」代表用聲音控制的意思。

「遙控器」:「遙」代表遙遠,「控」代表控制,「器」代表工具或器具;所以「遙控器」意思是可以從遠處控制一樣物件,例如開關、改變溫度或聲量等。

 

日常對話例子:

孩子:「咩係『雜菜煲』呀?」

家長:「你睇下『雜菜煲』入面有咩蔬菜?」

孩子:「有白菜、娃娃菜、西蘭花、生菜等。」

家長:「係喎,入面有好多種蔬菜。『雜』代表唔同嘅嘢要混埋一齊;而『雜菜煲』即係將好多種蔬菜放係個煲度一齊煮。」

家長:「咁你估吓『雜貨鋪』係咩呢?」

家長:「『雜貨鋪』即係有好多種貨品或好多種嘢賣嘅鋪頭。」

 

語素意識是幫助孩子學習理解新詞及擴展詞彙的重要法寶。家長可以好好把握日常生活中的機會來提升孩子的語素意識。下一節,我們將會進一步介紹如何幫助孩子說句子。

 

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

 

參考資料

 

Tong, X., McBride, C., Lo, J. C. M., & Shu, H. (2017). A three‐year longitudinal study of reading and spelling difficulty in Chinese developmental dyslexia: The matter of morphological awareness. Dyslexia, 23(4), 372-386.

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

我們已知道幼兒的口語能力與他們日後的閱讀發展息息相關,而要打好口語的良好基礎,孩子必先要「聽得清楚、講得準確」。上回我們介紹了有助幼兒「聽得清」的小遊戲,這次會推介一些能提升幼兒口語命名能力的遊戲和日常點子,以增加他們口語詞彙的數量和精確度。

何謂「講得準」?
● 詞彙數量要多
● 詞彙要精準(例:小孩説喜歡吃「包」,但「包」可更準確地描述成「方包」、「魚柳包」或「叉燒包」等)

 

要教孩子「講得準」,家長該注意甚麼?
● 讓孩子從身處的環境中學習相關詞彙,最為有效;例如在過馬路的實況下學習「斑馬線」、「紅綠燈」和「小心」等詞彙。
● 由常見、具體、較概括的簡單名稱入手(例:「包」、「鞋」、「嘢食」、「開心/唔開心」等),再發展較為抽象、少用和複雜的詞彙。
● 可透過指出事物的特性,幫助孩子將簡單的擴展為較精準的詞彙(例:這對「鞋」是用來踢「波」的,所以我們叫它「波鞋」;這對「鞋」的「踭」好「高」,所以我們叫它「高踭鞋」)。
● 當教導孩子一個新詞彙後,家長宜在不同處境或機會中重複使用該詞彙,或透過提問讓孩子說出該詞彙,有助加深孩子對物品及其準確名稱的記憶。

日常對答例子:

媽媽:「 呢碟係咩嚟呀?」
孩子:「 飯。」
媽媽:「 即係咩飯呢?」
孩子:「飯囉!」
媽媽:「佢係炒飯嚟㗎,仲有菠蘿添。所以呢碟就叫做『菠蘿炒飯』喇!」

(吃了一會兒後)
媽媽:「 啲『菠蘿炒飯』好唔好食呀?」

________________________________________

「講得準」遊戲一:看圖命名
目的:幫助孩子聯繫物件及相應名稱,提升口語詞彙量
1. 準備一些常用物品的圖卡(例如不同餐具、水果、交通工具等)。
2. 將圖卡反轉隨機放在桌上,然後逐張翻開,孩子要盡快說出圖卡中物品的名稱,能說出正確名稱便可收集該圖卡,收集得越多越好。
3. 起初可只選約 5 張圖卡進行遊戲,並給予時間讓孩子作出反應。當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以加快速度或增加物件的數量,甚至輪流互換角色進行遊戲。

「講得準」遊戲二:指指說說
目的:幫助孩子聯繫實物及相應名稱,提升口語詞彙量
1. 自製一支「神仙棒」,亦可用筷子、鉛筆等長條型物件代替。
2. 善用環境(例如家、公園、超級市場等)中的實物,以「神仙棒」指向其中一樣物件,孩子便要說出該物件的名稱。
3. 若孩子能正確說出物件的名稱,家長應給予讚賞,鼓勵孩子繼續嘗試;亦可互換角色,由孩子拿著「神仙棒」作提問,家長回答。
4. 若孩子說不出物件的名稱或不太準確,家長可說出物件正確的名稱,然後請孩子複述一次。稍後可再次指向該物件,以鞏固記憶。

________________________________________

透過以上活動來協助幼兒發展口語能力,不但可「聽得清楚」,還能「講得準確」。謹記遊戲的重點是讓孩子從歡樂中獲得成功感,對語言感興趣和好奇,從而培養孩子專心聆聽和清楚表達的能力。

要提升口語能力,口語詞彙量是一個很重要的條件。下一節,我們將會介紹語素意識 ── 一種能讓孩子無師自通地擴大口語詞彙量的能力,以及提升幼兒語素意識的方法。敬請留意本網頁的更新。

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕
顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

上回提到兒童的口語能力與他們的閱讀發展有著長遠且密切的關係。那麼口語能力是指甚麼呢?本地研究發現,兒童在學前階段的語音處理能力(包括分辨相似的語音–例如押韻的語音「跑、飽、攪」和不同調的語音「包、飽、爆」),以及口語命名的能力(即口語詞彙量),均能高度預測他們日後的閱讀表現(Chan, 2015; Liu et al., 2010; Tong et al., 2009)。簡而言之,就是先要聽得清楚、講得準確。在此推介一些能有效提升孩子對語音的敏銳力及增加口語詞彙的遊戲,輕鬆地為孩子打好口語基本功。

 

「聽得清」遊戲一:

目的:提升孩子對音節的敏感度,幫助孩子掌握廣東話(中文)是每一個音節代表一個字音的概念。例如「杯」有一個音節、「大杯」有兩個音節、「爺爺杯」有 三個音節。

玩法:

  1. 選用孩子經常接觸的簡單歌謠進行遊戲,例如洗手歌、我是茶壺歌。
  2. 播放或唱出歌謠時,孩子要跟隨歌詞每個字音拍一下手(或做其他動作例如拍枱、跺腳或敲擊等以增加趣味)。
  3. 家長可先用一些常見物品名稱示範玩法,例如漢堡包有三個音節(即三個字音),家長每讀出一個音節時,孩子便要拍一下手:漢[拍]堡[拍]包[拍]。之後才進階拍出歌謠。
  4. 當孩子熟習玩法後,家長與孩子可以輪流互換角色進行遊戲。

 

 

「聽得清」遊戲二:近音字辨別遊戲

目的:提升孩子辨識近音字的能力

玩法:

  1. 選出2-3個近音字為一組,近音字包括有相同韻母或不同聲調的詞彙。

相同韻母例子:花、蛙、瓜/ 飽、跑、餃/ 拋、包、抄/ 拍、百、髮/ 飄、錶、腰/ 清、星、興/ 酒、手、口/ 搖、橋、苗/ 天、鮮、煙/ 晴、停、鈴

不同聲調例子:收、手、獸/ 遮、蔗、謝/ 蛙、畫、話/ 杯、背/ 膠、攪

  1. 解釋該2-3個字音的意思並配對一個動作,當孩子聽到某個字音時,便要做出相應的動作。例如家長讀「花」,孩子便要做出代表花的那個動作,如此類推。
  2. 起初可只選2個字音來玩,並給予時間讓孩子作出反應。當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以加快速度或增加字音數量。

「聽得清」遊戲三:走了位

目的:加強孩子置換語音的敏銳度

玩法:

  1. 先說出一個常用物品名稱,例如巴士、大巴士、電飯煲、多拉A夢,然後提問:如果將巴士個「士」字調去前頭,便變成甚麼?(答案:士巴)。
  2. 家長可按孩子的能力選用2或3或4個語音的詞彙進行不同的置換,期間可借用一些物件例如不同顏色的衣夾或糖果輔助孩子思考置換後的答案。
  3. 當孩子熟習玩法後,家長與孩子可以輪流互換角色進行遊戲。

 

以上的活動能幫助幼兒發展口語能力,但家長應按照孩子的能力由淺入深地進行活動,讓孩子慢慢從歡樂中獲得成功感,不自覺地建立起「聽得清楚」的能力。下一節將會介紹「講得準確」的遊戲和日常點子。敬請留意本網頁的更新。

 

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

 

參考資料

 

Chan, C.K. (2015). The Role of Oral Language Development in Learning to Read: Examining the Effect of Dialect Code-switch upon Reading Development in Cantonese-speaking Preschoolers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

 

Liu, P. D., McBride-Chang, C., Wong, A. M. Y., Tardif, T., Stokes, S. F., Fletcher, P., & Shu, H. (2010). Early oral language markers of poor reading performance in Hong Kong Chinese children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(4), 322-331.

 

Tong, X., McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., & Wong, A. M.-Y. (2009). Morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and spelling errors: keys to understanding early Chinese literacy acquisition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13 (5), 426-452.

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

 

《識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列(二)》

從嬰兒牙牙學語,到逐漸學會説單字、詞語、短句、完整句子⋯⋯都是兒童語言發展的重要里程碑。我們常認為讀寫困難只是識字的問題,但原來孩子的語言發展,尤其是口語詞彙,與他們的閱讀發展有著長遠且密切的關係(Storch & Whitehurst, 2002)。

本地研究發現,在小學一年級發現認字有困難的兒童,他們於幼稚園階段的口語詞彙量明顯較平均為少;特別是在中班時,他們的詞彙表現較一般能力的組別落後約一半(Fong & Ho, 2019)。若學習口語詞彙的能力較弱,幼兒進一步發展説句子、理解他人指示、以至閱讀篇章等能力時也會遇上較大的困難。在幼兒未正式學習文字前,家長可觀察一下孩子是否有以下口語表達的問題:

物件 / 顏色名稱混淆:「碗」說成「碟」、「綠色」說成「藍色」
學習時間長: 花較多時間學習,如學會童謠或兒歌後,很快又會忘記
應用詞彙少: 經常用比較概括的字眼來代替,如只懂以「不開心」形容所有負面情緒
次序顛倒: 時常將句子或詞語的次序顛倒,如把「狗仔咬妹妹」說成「妹妹咬狗仔」
不懂舉一反三: 難以將已學的詞語進一步建構成新的詞語,如不會把「杯」擴展成「細杯」後,可自行組出「大杯」、「紅色杯」、「玻璃杯」等新構詞
說話句子短: 常省略主要主語或賓語,較遲才能用完整語句表達意思
複述說話有困難: 未能準確複述別人說過的句子,或就算多次重複指示或描述,但似乎仍未能明白

幼兒的口語詞彙與讀寫能力息息相關,家長絕不能忽視。若發現孩子有以上徵兆,家長也絕非束手無策。下一節我們將會介紹一些有助增加幼兒口語詞彙的方法,敬請留意本網頁/專頁的更新。

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕
顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

參考資料

  • Fong, C. Y. C., & Ho, C. S. H. (2019). Poor oral discourse skills are the key cognitive-linguistic weakness of Chinese poor comprehenders: A three-year longitudinal study. First Language, 39(3), 281-297.
  • Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38(6), 934-947.
  • 香港特殊學習困難研究小組. (2006). 香港學前兒童學習行為量表(家長版).

 

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

 

《識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列(一)》

幼兒才剛學說話,還未接觸任何文字,怎會有讀寫困難呢?讀寫能力,顧名思義是認讀和默寫的能力;然而,在小孩未正式學習讀寫前,我們原來已可從他們的日常表現中觀察出讀寫困難的端倪。即使是小至三歲的幼兒身上,研究人員已能從口語詞彙等能力上的缺失推測出讀寫障礙的先兆(Puolakanaho et al., 2007)。

讀寫困難兒童的情況是由多種認知能力缺損而形成(Badian, 1997),但絕非由智力、視覺、聽覺或學習動機的問題所致。及早察覺小孩的潛在讀寫困難,家長便能盡早提供適切的幫助,如建立豐富的語言環境、在日常多給予發展語言能力的機會,甚至尋求專業支援。適切的協助不但能減輕幼兒學習及其他情緒或行為上的問題,甚至可有助他們升小學後,應付課業上不用那麼吃力。

本地研究顯示,有早期讀寫困難的幼兒在接受早期讀寫支援後,他們的閱讀能力獲得顯著提升甚至勝過其他未有接受額外支援的幼兒 (Chung,Ho,Chan,Tsang,& Lee,2010)。加拿大學者 Lesaux 和 Siegel(2003)的研究顯示,約百分之二十的學童在幼稚園高班時被診斷為有早期讀寫困難,但經過學前支援後,在小學階段確診為有讀寫障礙的人數便大幅減少至約百分之三。及早識別及介入能讓幼兒盡早獲得專業的支援,在孩子成長上佔據著重要的角色。

學前階段是幼兒詞彙的高速增長期,家長可好好把握此時期,在家中玩一玩能加強聽、説、讀、寫能力的親子小遊戲。在未來數個星期,我們將會有一系列的文章講解如何識別有潛在讀寫困難的幼兒,以及一些有效提升孩子學習語文能力的方法。

 

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

參考資料

  • Badian, N. A. (1997). Dyslexia and the double deficit hypothesis. Annals of Dyslexia, 47(1), 69-87.
  • Chung, K. K. H., Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2010). Effects of kindergarten intervention for the prevention of Chinese children with reading difficulties.
  • Lesaux, N. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). The development of reading in children who speak English as a second language. Developmental Psychology, 39(6), 1005.
  • Puolakanaho, A., Ahonen, T., Aro, M., Eklund, K., Leppänen, P. H., Poikkeus, A. M., … & Lyytinen, H. (2007). Very early phonological and language skills: estimating individual risk of reading disability. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(9), 923-931.

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

 

 

我們非常感謝摩根士丹利義工團及在香港專業教育學院修讀特殊幼兒高級文憑的學生為博思會進行義工服務,協助本會教學團隊及行政部門不同工作,包括教材製作及文書等工作。

 

此外,五名來自香港專業教育學院學生亦參與在兩次家長講座中,並擔任暑期週末親子班教學助理職責。義工們均表示很高興能參與博思會義務工作,並希望將來能參加更多博思會活動,與本會同工及讀寫障礙的兒童有更多的互動。

 

衷心感謝來自摩根士丹利義工(上圖)及香港專業教育學院學生(下圖)的支持,協助本會進行不同義務工作。

以上文章節錄自2019年9月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享

 

本會感謝的近律師行捐款資助2019-20學年50名來自低收入家庭的讀寫障礙學生進行學科評估。有關評估專為「課餘支援計劃」及「早期讀寫支援計劃」新生而設,好讓老師了解學生的強弱項,有助設計個人化學習計劃及對照介入課程前後的進度表現。每年,的近律師行均會把原本用以製作招聘紀念品的費用捐出予慈善團體,以行動關懷社會上有需要人士。

 

以上文章節錄自2019年9月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享

 

當家長察覺孩子經常錯誤認讀英文字母或生字,或倒轉書寫如b變成d,p變成q,往往會向博思會老師請教糾正方法。現在就讓我們用最常見的b d 作例,分享如何加強孩子正確認讀英文字母的方法,主要以形、音、義三方面進行。

 

多感官學習

 

對於還未執筆的幼兒,我們可以利用刺激五官 (觸覺、視覺、聽覺、嗅覺及味覺) 的方法以增強孩子對字母的印象,例如: 使用泥膠砌字、沙盆寫字、毛毛鐵線扭字、凹形字卡等,讓幼兒可觸摸,初步加強文字形狀的印象。

 


音+形 – 認讀

 

若學生已有基本英文口語詞彙如 boy 及dog,但在認讀或寫字時仍有b d 混淆的情況,可嘗試以字母及圖像來加強記憶。

 

確認b 的字母可以用boy (男孩) 及 ball (皮球) 來作為記憶提示,這兩個字都是 b音起 ,強化形音關係可將其圖像故事化,如畫一個男孩正在踢球,先寫直線像個男孩 ,再寫半圓像個皮球 (圖一左方)。

 

圖一:以生字及圖像來加強記憶。

 

確認d 的形狀可以用dog (小狗) 及door (門)這個兩個同是d音字作提示,圖像化為一隻小狗走進門口,先寫左半圓像個小狗,再以直線像一個門口 (圖一右方)。

 

此外,我們隨身也有視覺提示的工具,這就是孩子的雙手了 (圖二),豎起拇指,將四指互碰對著,便可看見 b d 字形。再具體化一點,是以 bed(床) 形象化, 手指拼起來像一張床,兩邊床板就是 b d。

 

圖二:竪起拇指作為b、d視覺提示的隨身工具。

(圖片來源:My Teaching Station)

 

英文筆順


當孩子開始執筆書寫字母時,筆順是一個重要的環節。小楷b字母起點要在左邊先寫直線,才再右邊加上半圓;而d字起點應在左邊中間先寫左半圓,再在右邊加上直線 。有些學生把 b d 都從直線開始,容易造成混淆,要不停練習筆順,才能重新鞏固。

 

練習寫字不一定需要紙及筆,可以試以小遊戲增加孩子的投入感,如在孩子的掌心、背部寫字,甚至隔空寫字,然後要他猜出b 或 d,令學習變得更有趣味。

 

圖三:家長可利用不同方法練習筆順。

 

總結 愉快學習至為重要

 

事實上,學習英文的方法可以變化多端及有創意,要因應孩子不同的喜好及學習風格而利用不同活動形式,而非只有單一個方法,讓孩子愉快學習至為重要!

 

以上文章節錄自2019年9月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享