孩子出現焦慮有多方面因素,例如面對沉重的功課及測驗考試壓力,特別是有學習障礙的孩子可算是百上加斤,他們的焦慮往往源於功課的難度,令他們想逃避或拖延,若遇到不能再逃避的情況,他們很容易出現煩躁、沮喪及憤怒的情緒,經常處於緊張的狀態,難以集中精神,或可能出現身體不適的情況,例如睡眠問題、肌肉繃緊等。

面對孩子的焦慮,如温默書時發脾氣,家長可嘗試「聆聽溝通有道」之技巧,逐步紓緩子女的情緒,再助他們訂立方向。

1/ 身體語言: 表現專注的眼神及坐姿,讓孩子知道你將要聆聽他的需要

積極聆聽: 可一邊聽他的需要,一邊回應「真係難、明明剛剛寫過。」

 

 
反映情緒: 孩子的表現煩躁及不開心,家長嘗試引導孩子抒發情感: 「試吓講吓你的感受?」

 

 

 
表達同理心: 可重複孩子的感受: 「好難受,明明識架。」
 
釐清問題: 若孩子明確講出遇到的問題,如他覺得默書温習範圍太多太難,家長可稍作調整,以安撫其情緒。

 

確定方向: 「好,我們先默寫這個部份,然後可以休息一下。」

你會如何處理子女的焦慮?

讀寫障礙是特殊學習障礙的一種,讀障學生在學習路上需要比一般學生面對更多挫折和挑戰!懷疑子女有學習障礙,應盡早作出評估,尋求專家支援,成效會是較大且深遠!

 

博思會家長張威文先生:「讀寫障礙會困著他,跟著他一輩子。

有這個障礙,就要想方法跨過障礙,又或者與他同在。」

 

來看看家長們的分享!

更多專訪

數學排序遊戲可以訓練小朋友的邏輯思維,培養其分析能力,小朋友能解決到以下問題嗎?

 

問題:

小博和小思到花園玩,那裡花兒盛放,每一片花瓣也有其排序顏色,你知道下面幾朵花瓣估計是什麼顏色嗎?

 

讀寫障礙 (稱讀寫困難) 是一種常見的特殊學習困難,泛指閱讀、書寫或拼字方面的障礙。縱使他們在學習路上面對不少困難,只要掌握學習方法,亦能事半功倍!例如多色螢光筆是學習的好幫手,以不同顏色分類,有助提取線索,找出重點,令學習更輕鬆。

 

1/ 加強記憶力

用螢光筆標示新學的字、不熟悉的字、經常混亂的字,提醒孩子注意留心

 

2/ 幫助閱讀及理解

用螢光筆標示文章中重要的詞語和語句,幫助孩子閱讀及理解

 

3/ 讓答題更有效率

.閱讀試卷時用螢光筆間下重點,有助理解題目

.閱讀文字題時用螢光筆標示重要字眼,讓答題更有效率

 

4/了解文字的結構

使用螢光筆將字的部件或常錯的筆劃清楚明確地顯示出來,有助孩子理解文字的形、音、義結構

伸延閱讀: 

【Champimom 訪問】SEN 功課支援|中文科妙用格仔紙、螢光筆與複印本

兒童的語言發展像層層遞進的階梯,在發展過程中, 繪本 是一個很好的媒介,培養孩子理解故事的能力,亦可培養孩子閱讀習慣,訓練孩子的說話和組織能力,打好語文的基礎。博思會顧問鄭佩芸教授及資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士趁此推介一些兒童繪本,家長有興趣可到書店購買,或到香港公共圖書館借閱。   1/ 手指玩遊戲 (翻譯:台灣東方) 變變變!小手動一動, 變變變!大手小手一起玩遊戲! 用手指頭來玩有趣的遊戲!   2/爸爸別急著說晚安 (翻譯:格林文化) 爸爸說完晚安後,小朋友卻提醒爸爸忘了穿睡衣、娃娃、小燈…… 爸爸接下小朋友各式各樣的睡前任務,差點忘了天上的月亮!     3/ 小金魚逃走了 (翻譯:信誼基金) 佻皮的小金魚逃走了,跑到哪裡去?   4/湯姆的服裝店 (翻譯:信誼基金) 湯姆先生是個了不起的裁縫師,有一天,大嘴鳥請他幫朋友製作一件生日禮物,讓湯姆先生傷透了腦筋……   5/ 好餓的毛毛蟲 (翻譯:上誼文化) 鑽進鑽出、毛毛蟲忙得不得了,一口接一口、不停地吃吃吃,牠究竟什麼時候才吃飽?   6/ 鼠小弟的鬆餅派對 (翻譯:小魯文化) 鼠小妹要做鬆餅,鼠小弟把大家都叫來了,大家卻點了自己喜歡吃的東西,可是鼠小妹說的明明是鬆餅…… 該怎麼辦呢?   7/ 你是我們的寶貝 (翻譯:小魯文化) 森林裡出現了一顆五彩繽紛的蛋。 每一隻鳥兒都想把彩色蛋帶回家孵育。黃黃鳥想到一個好方法: 「我們可以輪流照顧這顆彩色蛋。」….到底彩色蛋孵化什麼來呢?   8/ 看見了! (翻譯:格林文化) 小兔子、長頸鹿和小象都想看見車廂外的景色,但是只有三個木箱,總是沒辦法一起看到,究竟車廂外的景色是什麼?要怎麼一起看到呢? 9/小企鵝搭飛機 (翻譯:小魯文化) 小企鵝眼花撩亂,差點迷了路, 究竟小企鵝姊弟是否能平安到達目的地呢?   10/ 電車小叮在哪裡? (翻譯:木棉樹) 這一天,島上的人等了很久,小叮一直沒有出現。人們沿著路軌走啊走,終於……   11/ 小毛上學去 (翻譯:維京) 每次小毛惹麻煩,總是說:「不是我!」、「那不是我的錯!」…… 這次小毛終於肯承認自己的錯   12/ 我最喜歡上學了! (翻譯:小康軒) 一個個天馬行空的想像,把「上學」變得不一樣!我最喜歡上學了!你呢?    

當家長察覺小朋友經常錯誤認讀英文字母或生字,如左右搞不清「b」和「d」,「q」和「p」,往往會向博思會老師請教糾正方法。如何有效加強孩子正確認讀英文字母b和d?其中一個方法可以用視覺提示,鼓勵小朋友雙手豎起拇指,將四指互碰對著,便可看見 b和d字形。

 

再具體化一點,是以 bed(床) 形象化, 手指拼起來像一張床,兩邊床板就是 b d。一起瀏覽以下動畫,便不會bd不分了!

 

伸延閱讀:

英文教學分享 : b d 之迷

Mrs. Chow has two lovely children. Based on her experience with the elder daughter, she used the same method to teach the younger son Harvey. She soon realized that the one method may not be effective for everyone.

 

When Harvey was in Primary One, his English teacher suspected that he had reading and writing difficulties because he had problems in learning phonics. Mrs. Chow recalled that when Harvey was at pre-school age, he learnt phonics at a learning centre like his sister, but was unable to pick it up as quickly as his sister did. Mrs. Chow was not too concerned though, since she thought that it was only because Harvey’s memory was not that good.

 

Mrs. Chow believes that every child is unique, including her son Harvey.

 

 

Not Aware of Dyslexia

 

“I didn’t notice the problem at the time. In fact, he would occasionally reverse certain letters in writing, or mix up the letters ‘b’ and ‘d’. If I had known that he might have reading and writing difficulties, he could have received learning support much earlier, and that would have helped him more.”

 

When Harvey was assessed and diagnosed with mild dyslexia, his teacher suggested that he should repeat Primary One, and provided Mrs. Chow with information on dyslexia, including seminars and brochures.

 

From the information provided by the school, Mrs. Chow learnt about Pathways, an organization dedicated to serving students with dyslexia. She searched the internet for more information and studied reviews about Pathways, and then decided to enroll Harvey in the Chinese and English After-School Support Programmes.

 

“My first encounter with Pathways was at the English subject assessment. I was most impressed by the teachers’ praise and encouragement to my child, which made me realize that there are many minor instances which can serve as sources of encouragement for our children.”

 

Mrs. Chow also learnt a lot while accompanying her child. Apart from how to show praise, she also realized the importance of patience.

 

Harvey enjoyed learning phonetics in Miss Windy’s English class very much. His progress in the first year was not very noticeable, but when Harvey got to Primary Three, the progress became more apparent. When he encountered new words, he would try to spell them out phonetically. At the same time, Mrs. Chow mastered how to create stories to help Harvey remember the context of the words. Supported by all these efforts, studying became much easier for Harvey.

 

“Like most parents, I used to think the child would be able to remember new words by copying them several times. Now I know that children with dyslexia need special methods to help them learn.”

 

A piece of artwork created by Harvey

 

We are Ultimately Responsible for Helping Our Child

 

After every class, Miss Windy would also take time to communicate with parents, showing them how to help their child study at home. Even with simple materials parents can prepare games for the child to play and learn at the same time, as the child will have a natural desire to win. This way, the child can learn the language without even knowing. Mrs. Chow also found that if she practiced together with her son, his progress would be more apparent.

 

“I really appreciate the teacher taking the initiative to communicate with parents. Parents should take the time to follow the teacher’s guidance and work together with the teacher, because we are ultimately responsible for helping and supporting our child.”

 

Mrs. Chow also praised the Chinese teacher Ms. Lam for helping Harvey to be more attentive in class. By giving him riddles to solve at the beginning of class, she created a happy atmosphere to start. After class Harvey would sometimes act as teacher and ask his mother to solve the riddle. Again, through playing games Harvey began to enjoy learning Chinese.

 

“In the course of Harvey’s learning, I discovered that every child is unique. Past methods may not always be effective. It is necessary for parents to find the suitable learning methods, and be more understanding towards their child’s needs, in order to minimize conflict and nurture a happy relationship,” Mrs. Chow concluded.

 

Source from 2019-20 Annual Report

Sharing from English Subject Teacher Miss Vicky Shek

Trust and Understanding are Catalysts for Students’ Learning

Miss Shek can take care of each student’s needs through small group learning

 

When it comes to learning English, quite a few students with dyslexia will choose to avoid or even dislike it out of feeling helpless and not knowing where to start.  To them, English is like an alien language.

 

After becoming Pathway’s English teacher, Miss Shek noticed that every student with dyslexia has his/her different needs, with varying learning ability and difficulty.  That is why she starts by understanding the student’s psychological condition.

 

“Every student has his/her strength and weakness, and students with special education needs often resolve to negative behaviour as an expression of their shortcomings or fear. As long as the teacher does not form conclusions about them based on their behaviour, or negate that they also have a desire to learn, trust and understanding will eventually develop and become catalysts in the students’ learning.”

 

Miss Shek recalls her experience when she provided in-school support at a secondary school and how impressed she was about the changes that occurred in one of the boys.

 

“John* was a Form One student. He was a typical boy who liked to appear strong, and created for himself an image of being ‘a little bully’. At first John was always causing trouble in class and arguing with his classmates, but gradually he became eager to learn and was the first one to arrive for class. His worksheets also became much neater! I was extremely pleased and appreciative to see this change because it reassured me that my teaching was effective.”

 

Before joining Pathways, Miss Shek had taught secondary school students with special learning needs such as autism, hyperactivity and a minor degree of reading and writing difficulties. She admires Pathways’ small group approach in teaching 2-3 students per class, and feels that the students here are quite lucky to receive the individualized intervention support which was much needed.

 

 

 

Overcome Difficulties One Step at a Time

 

And then there was another Pathways student Ken*, a Primary Five student who was caring and clever. He was prefect and boy scout at school, and was also part of the elite class; who would have thought that Ken had to deal with the helplessness and difficulties typically faced by students with dyslexia?

 

“English reading and spelling cause Ken great frustration, and he often tries to avoid them. He still has a lot of room for improvement. I hope he will not give up, and will strive to manifest his talents in other areas.”

 

Miss Shek often encourages her students to face difficulties with courage.

 

“No matter how unwilling you are, you have to continue to take forward steps and keep going, even though it may be small bird-like steps. No matter how big the challenge ahead is, you must try to overcome it one step at a time. For example, if you cannot remember the pronunciation of certain words, use your mobile phone to record its sound; if you have difficulty reading a whole paragraph, start with one sentence. If you dislike reading English, watch a TV show or a movie. Reading comics can also be a good way to learn!”

Providing real-time online classes at the centre

 

Importance of Collaboration with Parents

 

Besides the student’s own effort and hard work, it is important to collaborate with parents.

 

“Every parent who sends their child to Pathways is caring, and is willing to work together with the teacher to help their children continue their learning at home. There were parents who told me, “Miss Shek, xx is doing better in his dictation, or xx’s examination scores have improved, thank you!” And I replied, “That is a result of your child’s hard work, your praise should go to him/her.”

 

Miss Shek continued to explain that parents and teachers of children with dyslexia in most cases can only “see” their learning difficulties, but not really “feel” it personally. If their child works hard and succeeds, parents should give clear verbal encouragement; if the child has tried but is not making it yet, parents should continue to show support with patience and love.

 

This year, face-to-face class was often disrupted by the pandemic, and students often had to take lessons from home. This brought great challenge for students with attention deficiency. In order to motivate their concentration in front of the computer monitor, the teacher has to spend time to create and design more class activities, and to break learning units down into smaller parts.

 

”For example, for regular reading activity, I will record the content in advance and use it for listening exercise material. After showing the video and introducing the new vocabulary, I will ask the students to do one or two listening exercise, before reading the sentences or short paragraphs for the students to check their answers. This makes the students more willing to read,” Miss Shek explained.

 

The thoughtfulness behind Miss Shek’s teaching is well appreciated by her students and their parents.

 

*pseudonym

 

Source from 2019-20 Annual Report

 

Join Pathways!!!

Your Teaching Expertise Can Make Your Life More Rewarding

Pathways invites interested parties to join the team in serving students in need.

Help Children with Dyslexia
Bridge the Learning Gap

子女溫書吃力成績差,對閱讀及寫字感到困難?一般來說,若家長懷疑孩子有讀寫障礙,而年滿六歲或以上,可經 #心理學家或教育心理學家 進行正式評估,家長可先向學校或政府健康院諮詢,然後作轉介,但等候時間較長。

另一途徑是經非牟利機構或私營機構進行評估,如非牟利機構的 #博思會 可提供三項與讀寫障礙有關的評估服務,測驗內容各異,當中未滿六歲學童只可評估其讀寫障礙傾向,以便家長提早安排介入訓練服務。

與其左猜右度,立即為子女做個評估,為下學年學習支援作好準備吧!

什麼是讀寫障礙?

讀寫障礙 (稱讀寫困難) 是一種常見的特殊學習困難,泛指閱讀、書寫或拼字方面的障礙。

 

 

如家長懷疑孩子有讀寫障礙傾向,可先檢閱以下表徵清單;
若發現孩子有多方面的情況出現,孩子有機會有讀寫障礙。

如何去診斷及評估Slide5

博思會可為懷疑有讀寫困難的孩子進行評估,並提供支援課程。以下有三項評估以供選擇:

 

選擇一:學前及小學讀寫障礙甄別測驗服務 (KPSS)
此服務可讓家長以一個較低費用去初步了解子女的讀寫情況/問題。適合對象為4歲或以上學前及小學學生。家長只希望先知道是否有讀障傾向為合。評估約需1小時,由資深老師主理,心理學家/醫生支援。結果會顯示出是否有讀寫障礙傾向。

 

選擇二:學前兒童評估服務 (EPSS)
此服務專為學前兒童而設,其摘要可提供幼稚園及小一學校作參考及跟進。適合對象就讀K2或K3,及年滿四歲三個月。評估約需1至1.5小時,由資深心理學家主理。結果顯示讀寫認知過程的表現,以及日後被診斷為有讀寫障礙的機會。

 

選擇三:臨床心理學支援服務 (CPSS)
此服務提供詳盡評估結果及書面報告。若評估對象被診斷為讀寫障礙,此報告為政府及學校承認。適合對象為中小學生。評估約需4至6小時,由資深臨床心理學家主理。結果會顯示出是否有讀寫障礙。

有關專業甄別及評估服務

及早察覺小孩的潛在讀寫困難,家長便能盡早提供適切的幫助,如建立豐富的語言環境、在日常多給予發展語言能力的機會,甚至尋求專業支援。若能愈早識別及提供支援,這些幼兒愈能受惠,成效更深遠。

 

適切的協助不但能減輕孩子學習及其他情緒或行為上的問題,甚至可有助他們應付課業上不用那麼吃力,家長壓力及情緒自然也得到改善。

如何去診斷及評估Slide4

有關臨床心理學支援服務:

由專業的臨床心理學家為家長及學生提供支援服務,內容包括為上述的學生提供評估及心理輔導。

 

服務對象:

小學(需年滿6歲1個月)及初中學生

*高中評估-需了解個別情況而作合適安排

 

評估內容:

  • 與家長面談
  • 智力評估
  • 有關香港讀寫障礙測驗
  • 書面報告及解說評估結果

評估後的支援

 

博思會可提供不同支援課程,包括為學前兒童而設的早期讀寫支援計劃 (ELSP)及為中小學生而設的課餘支援讀寫障礙計劃(ASSP)。
如欲獲取更多資訊,歡迎與我們聯絡。

 

課餘支援計劃:

以小組或個別模式,為有讀寫障礙的學生在課餘提供定時而持續的學科支援服務。

 

課程特色:

  • 中文、英文及數學的支援課程
  • 由資深的合格經驗教師任教
  • 根據學障學生的個別需要而設計學習課程
  • 每次課程,均備有獨立教案及課堂檢討
  • 學生可選擇個別或小組上課
  • 學生可選擇面授或實時網上上課,或以混合模式上課
  • 學習小組的學生人數不會超過四名,使學生可以得到悉心的照顧
  • 提供全方位的學習輔導,包括讀寫、計算、組織能力、社交技巧和注意力等
  • 持續進度評估
  • 定時提供書面學習進度報告
  • 設備完善環境舒適
如何去診斷及評估Slide8
如需以上評估及輔導支援,歡迎致電 3105 2311 預約。

究竟什麼是讀寫障礙?家有讀障兒,家長又可以怎應對呢?博思會 項目經理(學前階段課程製作)暨教育心理學家招麗儀早前接受明報教得樂訪問,暢談如何克服讀寫障礙!

 

原文: https://bit.ly/37KrQcK

 


不經不覺,暑假已經過了一半,小朋友開始做暑期功課了嗎?不知你家孩子的功課有否甩甩漏漏,亂七八糟?字體好像甲骨文,東歪西倒?那當心孩子可能有讀寫障礙。究竟什麼是讀寫障礙?家有讀障兒,家長又可以怎應對呢?

8歲的偉仔,是一個文靜乖巧的學生,每逢默書、測考,他都會「自動自覺」去溫習,亦從不欠交功課,奈何他的成績與付出並不相稱,試卷總是滿佈一個個紅色大交叉。「他經常問我,為何自己這樣蠢,腦袋好像記不到東西似的。」偉仔媽媽杜太一臉無奈地說。

讀寫障礙是與生俱來的,學童容易感到沮喪和焦慮,但只要適時接受有效的訓練,掌握合適的學習方法,他們一樣可以出人頭地。(設計圖片,模特兒與本文提及個案無關,資料圖片)

腦部發展、功能異於常人

其實偉仔並非「蠢」,而是有讀寫障礙。杜太憶述,他小時候說話也不太靈光,「返了3年幼稚園,總是講不出在學校學過什麼、玩了什麼」,升上小一後,成績更是嚇人,科科「滿江紅」,「我一直以為是細B的緣故,所以才這樣子,但也奇怪怎麼只是默5、6個生字,即使每天跟他溫習,溫足兩星期,到最後也是一個字也寫不出來呢」,後來杜太聽從建議,帶偉仔去做評估,最終確診他有讀寫障礙。

博思會項目經理(學前階段課程製作)暨教育心理學家招麗儀表示,讀寫障礙是一種與神經系統有關的學習障礙,孩子雖然智力正常,但由於腦部發展及功能有別於一般人,以致他們在辨識、聽寫及拼寫文字方面,遇上很大困難,出現閱讀理解和寫作上的問題,「在學前階段,或尚未接觸文字時,讀障孩子的『論盡』情况尚不明顯,但不少研究發現,這類小朋友,很多時在幼兒時,口語發展及說話能力都已經表現得比較弱,這個對家長來說,也可能是警號」。

 

 

 

招麗儀(沈雅詩攝)

 

 

藥物未必有幫助

跟不少家長一樣,杜太最初誤以為有藥物可幫助偉仔,招麗儀說,這個是需要戳破的迷思,「一些有讀障的小朋友,因為兼有專注力不足的問題,透過藥物,或者可幫到他們專注些,但就不能處理因讀障所引起的學習困難」。

自從知道家有讀障兒後,杜太比從前更包容偉仔,也積極安排他接受訓練,「在中心做了1年多訓練,看到是慢慢有進步的,尤其數學科,由以前不及格到有60分,連學校老師也嘖嘖稱奇。他更告訴我,愈來愈喜歡數學科」。

招麗儀補充,讀障對每個學童的影響不同,要視乎嚴重程度,「有些孩子只是中文不行,英文、理科都很優秀的,或許讀國際學校、IB課程,他們同樣有機會升讀大學。亦有些在非學業方面,例如體育、音樂或藝術等,很有才華,有待師長去發掘」。她建議家長平日可跟孩子多朗讀圖書,也可透過「對話式閱讀」,引導小朋友理解故事內容,對閱讀理解和寫作也有幫助。

她又提醒,家長的接納和支持,對讀障孩子的成長發展很重要,「有不少讀障的小朋友,都很怕做功課,拖拖拉拉,親子衝突往往由此而起。我建議家長可嘗試找老師商量,看能否安排功課輔導班跟進,或酌情減少部分功課。家長心目中亦要有一個時間,無論功課完成與否,都要讓孩子睡覺休息,避免吵鬧傷和氣」。

 

患讀寫障礙的偉仔(右),在學習中文和英文方面有很大困難,但媽媽杜太從來沒有放棄,更不斷為兒子打氣,維持他的學習動力。(沈雅詩攝)

 


■知多啲

支援經驗集結 解家長疑難

博思會成立20周年,今年把歷年所積累的讀寫障礙研究及支援經驗集結成《讀寫障礙99問與答》,以深入淺出的方式,解答家長的疑難。此書屬非賣品,但公眾只要捐款$700或以上(相等於資助清貧讀障學童兩次課堂),即可獲贈一本。名額有限,先到先得。

 

詳情︰

《讀寫障礙99問與答》慈善義賣

文︰沈雅詩

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