讀寫障礙 (稱讀寫困難) 是一種常見的特殊學習困難，泛指閱讀、書寫或拼字方面的障礙。縱使他們在學習路上面對不少困難，只要掌握學習方法，亦能事半功倍！例如多色螢光筆是學習的好幫手，以不同顏色分類，有助提取線索，找出重點，令學習更輕鬆。
兒童的語言發展像層層遞進的階梯，在發展過程中， 繪本 是一個很好的媒介，培養孩子理解故事的能力，亦可培養孩子閱讀習慣，訓練孩子的說話和組織能力，打好語文的基礎。博思會顧問鄭佩芸教授及資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士趁此推介一些兒童繪本，家長有興趣可到書店購買，或到香港公共圖書館借閱。 1/ 手指玩遊戲 (翻譯：台灣東方) 變變變！小手動一動， 變變變！大手小手一起玩遊戲！ 用手指頭來玩有趣的遊戲！ 2/爸爸別急著說晚安 (翻譯：格林文化) 爸爸說完晚安後，小朋友卻提醒爸爸忘了穿睡衣、娃娃、小燈…… 爸爸接下小朋友各式各樣的睡前任務，差點忘了天上的月亮！ 3/ 小金魚逃走了 (翻譯：信誼基金) 佻皮的小金魚逃走了，跑到哪裡去？ 4/湯姆的服裝店 (翻譯：信誼基金) 湯姆先生是個了不起的裁縫師，有一天，大嘴鳥請他幫朋友製作一件生日禮物，讓湯姆先生傷透了腦筋…… 5/ 好餓的毛毛蟲 (翻譯：上誼文化) 鑽進鑽出、毛毛蟲忙得不得了，一口接一口、不停地吃吃吃，牠究竟什麼時候才吃飽？ 6/ 鼠小弟的鬆餅派對 (翻譯：小魯文化) 鼠小妹要做鬆餅，鼠小弟把大家都叫來了，大家卻點了自己喜歡吃的東西，可是鼠小妹說的明明是鬆餅…… 該怎麼辦呢？ 7/ 你是我們的寶貝 (翻譯：小魯文化) 森林裡出現了一顆五彩繽紛的蛋。 每一隻鳥兒都想把彩色蛋帶回家孵育。黃黃鳥想到一個好方法： 「我們可以輪流照顧這顆彩色蛋。」….到底彩色蛋孵化什麼來呢？ 8/ 看見了！ (翻譯：格林文化) 小兔子、長頸鹿和小象都想看見車廂外的景色，但是只有三個木箱，總是沒辦法一起看到，究竟車廂外的景色是什麼？要怎麼一起看到呢？ 9/小企鵝搭飛機 (翻譯：小魯文化) 小企鵝眼花撩亂，差點迷了路， 究竟小企鵝姊弟是否能平安到達目的地呢？ 10/ 電車小叮在哪裡？ (翻譯：木棉樹) 這一天，島上的人等了很久，小叮一直沒有出現。人們沿著路軌走啊走，終於…… 11/ 小毛上學去 (翻譯：維京) 每次小毛惹麻煩，總是說：「不是我！」、「那不是我的錯！」…… 這次小毛終於肯承認自己的錯 12/ 我最喜歡上學了！ (翻譯：小康軒) 一個個天馬行空的想像，把「上學」變得不一樣！我最喜歡上學了！你呢？
Mrs. Chow has two lovely children. Based on her experience with the elder daughter, she used the same method to teach the younger son Harvey. She soon realized that the one method may not be effective for everyone.
When Harvey was in Primary One, his English teacher suspected that he had reading and writing difficulties because he had problems in learning phonics. Mrs. Chow recalled that when Harvey was at pre-school age, he learnt phonics at a learning centre like his sister, but was unable to pick it up as quickly as his sister did. Mrs. Chow was not too concerned though, since she thought that it was only because Harvey’s memory was not that good.
Not Aware of Dyslexia
“I didn’t notice the problem at the time. In fact, he would occasionally reverse certain letters in writing, or mix up the letters ‘b’ and ‘d’. If I had known that he might have reading and writing difficulties, he could have received learning support much earlier, and that would have helped him more.”
When Harvey was assessed and diagnosed with mild dyslexia, his teacher suggested that he should repeat Primary One, and provided Mrs. Chow with information on dyslexia, including seminars and brochures.
From the information provided by the school, Mrs. Chow learnt about Pathways, an organization dedicated to serving students with dyslexia. She searched the internet for more information and studied reviews about Pathways, and then decided to enroll Harvey in the Chinese and English After-School Support Programmes.
“My first encounter with Pathways was at the English subject assessment. I was most impressed by the teachers’ praise and encouragement to my child, which made me realize that there are many minor instances which can serve as sources of encouragement for our children.”
Mrs. Chow also learnt a lot while accompanying her child. Apart from how to show praise, she also realized the importance of patience.
Harvey enjoyed learning phonetics in Miss Windy’s English class very much. His progress in the first year was not very noticeable, but when Harvey got to Primary Three, the progress became more apparent. When he encountered new words, he would try to spell them out phonetically. At the same time, Mrs. Chow mastered how to create stories to help Harvey remember the context of the words. Supported by all these efforts, studying became much easier for Harvey.
“Like most parents, I used to think the child would be able to remember new words by copying them several times. Now I know that children with dyslexia need special methods to help them learn.”
We are Ultimately Responsible for Helping Our Child
After every class, Miss Windy would also take time to communicate with parents, showing them how to help their child study at home. Even with simple materials parents can prepare games for the child to play and learn at the same time, as the child will have a natural desire to win. This way, the child can learn the language without even knowing. Mrs. Chow also found that if she practiced together with her son, his progress would be more apparent.
“I really appreciate the teacher taking the initiative to communicate with parents. Parents should take the time to follow the teacher’s guidance and work together with the teacher, because we are ultimately responsible for helping and supporting our child.”
Mrs. Chow also praised the Chinese teacher Ms. Lam for helping Harvey to be more attentive in class. By giving him riddles to solve at the beginning of class, she created a happy atmosphere to start. After class Harvey would sometimes act as teacher and ask his mother to solve the riddle. Again, through playing games Harvey began to enjoy learning Chinese.
“In the course of Harvey’s learning, I discovered that every child is unique. Past methods may not always be effective. It is necessary for parents to find the suitable learning methods, and be more understanding towards their child’s needs, in order to minimize conflict and nurture a happy relationship,” Mrs. Chow concluded.
Sharing from English Subject Teacher Miss Vicky Shek
Trust and Understanding are Catalysts for Students’ Learning
When it comes to learning English, quite a few students with dyslexia will choose to avoid or even dislike it out of feeling helpless and not knowing where to start. To them, English is like an alien language.
After becoming Pathway’s English teacher, Miss Shek noticed that every student with dyslexia has his/her different needs, with varying learning ability and difficulty. That is why she starts by understanding the student’s psychological condition.
“Every student has his/her strength and weakness, and students with special education needs often resolve to negative behaviour as an expression of their shortcomings or fear. As long as the teacher does not form conclusions about them based on their behaviour, or negate that they also have a desire to learn, trust and understanding will eventually develop and become catalysts in the students’ learning.”
Miss Shek recalls her experience when she provided in-school support at a secondary school and how impressed she was about the changes that occurred in one of the boys.
“John* was a Form One student. He was a typical boy who liked to appear strong, and created for himself an image of being ‘a little bully’. At first John was always causing trouble in class and arguing with his classmates, but gradually he became eager to learn and was the first one to arrive for class. His worksheets also became much neater! I was extremely pleased and appreciative to see this change because it reassured me that my teaching was effective.”
Before joining Pathways, Miss Shek had taught secondary school students with special learning needs such as autism, hyperactivity and a minor degree of reading and writing difficulties. She admires Pathways’ small group approach in teaching 2-3 students per class, and feels that the students here are quite lucky to receive the individualized intervention support which was much needed.
Overcome Difficulties One Step at a Time
And then there was another Pathways student Ken*, a Primary Five student who was caring and clever. He was prefect and boy scout at school, and was also part of the elite class; who would have thought that Ken had to deal with the helplessness and difficulties typically faced by students with dyslexia?
“English reading and spelling cause Ken great frustration, and he often tries to avoid them. He still has a lot of room for improvement. I hope he will not give up, and will strive to manifest his talents in other areas.”
Miss Shek often encourages her students to face difficulties with courage.
“No matter how unwilling you are, you have to continue to take forward steps and keep going, even though it may be small bird-like steps. No matter how big the challenge ahead is, you must try to overcome it one step at a time. For example, if you cannot remember the pronunciation of certain words, use your mobile phone to record its sound; if you have difficulty reading a whole paragraph, start with one sentence. If you dislike reading English, watch a TV show or a movie. Reading comics can also be a good way to learn!”
Importance of Collaboration with Parents
Besides the student’s own effort and hard work, it is important to collaborate with parents.
“Every parent who sends their child to Pathways is caring, and is willing to work together with the teacher to help their children continue their learning at home. There were parents who told me, “Miss Shek, xx is doing better in his dictation, or xx’s examination scores have improved, thank you!” And I replied, “That is a result of your child’s hard work, your praise should go to him/her.”
Miss Shek continued to explain that parents and teachers of children with dyslexia in most cases can only “see” their learning difficulties, but not really “feel” it personally. If their child works hard and succeeds, parents should give clear verbal encouragement; if the child has tried but is not making it yet, parents should continue to show support with patience and love.
This year, face-to-face class was often disrupted by the pandemic, and students often had to take lessons from home. This brought great challenge for students with attention deficiency. In order to motivate their concentration in front of the computer monitor, the teacher has to spend time to create and design more class activities, and to break learning units down into smaller parts.
”For example, for regular reading activity, I will record the content in advance and use it for listening exercise material. After showing the video and introducing the new vocabulary, I will ask the students to do one or two listening exercise, before reading the sentences or short paragraphs for the students to check their answers. This makes the students more willing to read,” Miss Shek explained.
The thoughtfulness behind Miss Shek’s teaching is well appreciated by her students and their parents.
子女溫書吃力成績差，對閱讀及寫字感到困難？一般來說，若家長懷疑孩子有讀寫障礙，而年滿六歲或以上，可經 #心理學家或教育心理學家 進行正式評估，家長可先向學校或政府健康院諮詢，然後作轉介，但等候時間較長。
另一途徑是經非牟利機構或私營機構進行評估，如非牟利機構的 #博思會 可提供三項與讀寫障礙有關的評估服務，測驗內容各異，當中未滿六歲學童只可評估其讀寫障礙傾向，以便家長提早安排介入訓練服務。
讀寫障礙 (稱讀寫困難) 是一種常見的特殊學習困難，泛指閱讀、書寫或拼字方面的障礙。
如需以上評估及輔導支援，歡迎致電 3105 2311 預約。
[Happy PaMa 教得樂 第357期]